pharmacological properties of piracetam-like compounds

Pharmacological properties of piracetam-like compounds

CompoundIUPAC namePotencyDosageBioavailability (%)Half-life
Piracetam2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamideLow50 to >300mg/kg/d (up to 37 g/d)~1004–5h
Oxiracetam2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamideMedium25–40mg/kg/d (up to 2.4 g/d)~753–6 h
PramiracetamN-[2-(dipropan-2-ylamino)ethyl]-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamideMedium10–20mg/kg/d (1.2 g/d)~1002–8 h
Aniracetam1-[(4-methoxybenzoyl)]-2-pyrrolidinoneMedium12–25mg/kg/d (1.5g/d)~111–2.5 h
Phenylpiracetam2-(4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamideHigh 2.5–5mg/kg/d (up to 0.75 g/d)~1003–5 h
Levetiracetam(2S)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamideMedium20–60mg/kg/d (up to 3 g/d)~1006–8h
Brivaracetam(2S)-2-[(4R)-2-oxo-4-propylpyrrolidin-1-yl]butanamideMedium10–25mg/kg/d (up to 1.4 g/d)~907–8 h
Seletracetam(2S)-2-[(4R)-4-(2,2-difluoroethenyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl]butanamideHigh0.03–10mg/kg/d (up to 0. 6 g/d)>908 h
NefiracetamN-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamideMedium10–15mg/kg/d (up to 0.9 g/d)NA3–5 h
Fasoracetam(5R)-5-(piperidine-1-carbonyl) pyrrolidin-2-oneHigh100mg/d79–974–6.5 h
Rolziracetam2,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolizine-3,5-dioneNANA~90<25 min

Piracetam dosage

Piracetam: first nootropic drug/supplement

Piracetam: first nootropic drug/supplement

Piracetam is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a first, most common nootropic drug/dietary supplement. The term nootropic comes from a Greek words: noos for mind and tropein for towards. Piracetam is a product of UCB Laboratories (Belgium) and it is in clinical use since 1972. It has been successfully used to treat dementia, vertigo, sickle cell anemia, and numerous other health problems like Alzheimeris disease, stroke and alcoholism. It has been shown that piracetam reduce neuronal loss resulted from alcohol consumption. Piracetam also enhances cognition under conditionsof hypoxia, and also enhances memory and learning. It is an effective supplement for the gains in memorization, learning capacities, and intelligence boost. When taken with choline, there is a synergistic effect that causes a greater effects.
These pharmacological effects of piracetam were reported almost 30 years ago, but its mechanism of action was unknown for a long time.  Surprisingly, the mechanizm of its action is not related to GABA receptors. It has little affinity for glutamate receptors and also enhance the efficacy of AMPA induced calcium influx in brain cells. Piracetam is generally reported to have minima or no side effects. Piracetam is a cognitive enhancer and memory enhancing supplement. Many people across the world use the nootropic, piracetam, to effectively retain knowledge and improve memory. Piracetam is utilized by both younger and older healthy individuals. 
The standard piracetam dose for adults is between 1,2-4,8mg a day. Other trade names of Piracetam: Avigilen, Cerebroforte, Cerebrospan, Cetam, Dinagen, Encefalux, Encetrop, Euvifor, Gabacet, Genogris, Memo-Puren, Nootron, Nootrop, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Normabrain, Norzetam, Pirroxil, Psycotron, Stimucortex, and UCB-6215.