Pharmacological properties of piracetam-like compounds

Compound IUPAC name Potency Dosage Bioavailability (%) Half-life
Piracetam 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide Low 50 to >300mg/kg/d (up to 37 g/d) ~100 4–5h
Oxiracetam 2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide Medium 25–40mg/kg/d (up to 2.4 g/d) ~75 3–6 h
Pramiracetam N-[2-(dipropan-2-ylamino)ethyl]-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide Medium 10–20mg/kg/d (1.2 g/d) ~100 2–8 h
Aniracetam 1-[(4-methoxybenzoyl)]-2-pyrrolidinone Medium 12–25mg/kg/d (1.5g/d) ~11 1–2.5 h
Phenylpiracetam 2-(4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide High  2.5–5mg/kg/d (up to 0.75 g/d) ~100 3–5 h
Levetiracetam (2S)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamide Medium 20–60mg/kg/d (up to 3 g/d) ~100 6–8h
Brivaracetam (2S)-2-[(4R)-2-oxo-4-propylpyrrolidin-1-yl]butanamide Medium 10–25mg/kg/d (up to 1.4 g/d) ~90 7–8 h
Seletracetam (2S)-2-[(4R)-4-(2,2-difluoroethenyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl]butanamide High 0.03–10mg/kg/d (up to 0. 6 g/d) >90 8 h
Nefiracetam N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide Medium 10–15mg/kg/d (up to 0.9 g/d) NA 3–5 h
Nebracetam 4-(aminomethyl)-1-benzyl-pyrrolidin-2-one Medium 200–800mg/d NA NA
Rolipram 4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)pyrrolidin-2-one High 0.75–3.0mg/d >70 2h
Fasoracetam (5R)-5-(piperidine-1-carbonyl) pyrrolidin-2-one High 100mg/d 79–97 4–6.5 h
Rolziracetam 2,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolizine-3,5-dione NA NA ~90 <25 min