Blueberry concentrate improves brain function in older people

Blueberry improves brain functions

Drinking concentrated blueberry juice improves brain function in older people, according to research by the University of Exeter. In the study, healthy people aged 65-77 who drank concentrated blueberry juice every day showed improvements in cognitive function, blood flow to the brain and activation of the brain while carrying out cognitive tests. There was also evidence suggesting improvement in working memory. Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our cognitive function tends to decline as we get older, but previous research has shown that cognitive function is better preserved in healthy older adults with a diet rich in plant-based foods.
http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/10.1139/apnm-2016-0550#.WNaUpm_hDDc


Piracetam dosage

Piracetam: first nootropic drug/supplement

Piracetam: first nootropic drug/supplement

Piracetam is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and a first, most common nootropic drug/dietary supplement. The term nootropic comes from a Greek words: noos for mind and tropein for towards. Piracetam is a product of UCB Laboratories (Belgium) and it is in clinical use since 1972. It has been successfully used to treat dementia, vertigo, sickle cell anemia, and numerous other health problems like Alzheimeris disease, stroke and alcoholism. It has been shown that piracetam reduce neuronal loss resulted from alcohol consumption. Piracetam also enhances cognition under conditionsof hypoxia, and also enhances memory and learning. It is an effective supplement for the gains in memorization, learning capacities, and intelligence boost. When taken with choline, there is a synergistic effect that causes a greater effects.
These pharmacological effects of piracetam were reported almost 30 years ago, but its mechanism of action was unknown for a long time.  Surprisingly, the mechanizm of its action is not related to GABA receptors. It has little affinity for glutamate receptors and also enhance the efficacy of AMPA induced calcium influx in brain cells. Piracetam is generally reported to have minima or no side effects. Piracetam is a cognitive enhancer and memory enhancing supplement. Many people across the world use the nootropic, piracetam, to effectively retain knowledge and improve memory. Piracetam is utilized by both younger and older healthy individuals. 
The standard piracetam dose for adults is between 1,2-4,8mg a day. Other trade names of Piracetam: Avigilen, Cerebroforte, Cerebrospan, Cetam, Dinagen, Encefalux, Encetrop, Euvifor, Gabacet, Genogris, Memo-Puren, Nootron, Nootrop, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Normabrain, Norzetam, Pirroxil, Psycotron, Stimucortex, and UCB-6215.


Noopept: Russian nootropic supplement

Noopept: Russian nootropic supplement

Noopept: (Ноопепт, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111) is a modern synthetic nootropic compound developed in Russia in the 1980s, currently manufactured by Lekko Pharmaceuticals. Noopept demonstrated wide spectrum of cognition improving effects as well as pronounced neuroprotective activities both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Compared to piracetam GVS-111 produces a cognition enhancing effect at much lower concentrations and demonstrates activity over a wider range of cognition disturbances and neuronal damages. Now GVS-111 is sold without a prescription in Russia (as nootropic suplement). Noopept is useful for improving cognitive deficits, and may be especially useful for researchers investigating neurodegeneration induced by conditions like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.
Noopept Dosage and Administration: The standard dose for orally ingested Noopept is 10 mg – 30 mg (3 times a day). This dose is much lower than the typical dose for Piracetam, which is about  4800 mg. It means that GVS-111 is about 1000 times more potent than Piracetam.
Memory, Learning and Focus: GVS-111 interacts with a number of neurotransmitters inside the brain that can increase your brain energy in regards to memory and learning. Based on research, Noopept can boost overall performance in all of the 3 elements of memory that include development, access and recovery. 

NOOPEPT BENEFITS:
Increased global cognitive function
Increased levels os Neurotrophins (BDNF and NGF)
Incrased anxiolysis, memory consolidation,  retrieval
Decreased level of cytokines (inflammatory molecules)
Decreased hyperglycemia,  BMI,  pain sensitivity
Decreased oxidative stress, glutamate toxicity

References:
Dipeptide Piracetam Analogue Noopept Improves Viability of Hippocampal HT-22 Neurons in the Glutamate Toxicity Model. Antipova TA, Nikolaev SV, Ostrovskaya PU, Gudasheva TA, Seredenin SB. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016 May;161(1):58-60. doi: 10.1007/s10517-016-3344-z. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Action of Substituted Pro-Gly Dipeptide Noopept. Vakhitova YV, Sadovnikov SV, Borisevich SS, Ostrovskaya RU, A Gudasheva T, Seredenin SB. Acta Naturae. 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):82-9.
Nootropic dipeptide noopept enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Povarov IS, Kondratenko RV, Derevyagin VI, Ostrovskaya RU, Skrebitskii VG. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2015 Jan;158(3):349-51. doi: 10.1007/s10517-015-2759-2. Epub 2015 Jan 9.
Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation. Ostrovskaya RU, Vakhitova YV, Kuzmina USh, Salimgareeva MKh, Zainullina LF, Gudasheva TA, Vakhitov VA, Seredenin SB. J Biomed Sci. 2014 Aug 6;21:74. doi: 10.1186/s12929-014-0074-2.
An experimental study of the anti-inflammatory action of noopept and its effect on the level of cytokines. Alekseeva SV, Kovalenko LP, Tallerova AV, Gudasheva TA, Durnev AD. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2012;75(9):25-7.
Neuroprotective and nootropic drug noopept rescues α-synuclein amyloid cytotoxicity. Jia X, Gharibyan AL, Öhman A, Liu Y, Olofsson A, Morozova-Roche LA. J Mol Biol. 2011 Dec 16;414(5):699-712. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.09.044. Epub 2011 Oct 1.


Chess and cognitive enhancing drugs

Chess and cognitive enhancing drugs

A group of researchers in Germany and Sweden recruited 39 competitive male chess players, who had an average IQ of 127 and an average chess Elo rating of about 1700 (an above-average rating in the system used to determine serious players’ skill level). They divided the group to test their performance after consuming either 200 mg of modafinil, 20 mg of ritalin, 200 mg of caffeine, or a placebo. Each participant then played 20 games against the computer which adjusted to their skill level. In each game, the participant had 15 minutes to make their moves. When they controlled for the extra time, however, they found that modafinil boosted performance by 15%, ritalin by 13%, and caffeine by 9%. The placebo, as expected, didn’t do anything. The researchers believe that cognitive enhancers were helping players perform more mental calculations and make better moves.