citicoline benefits

Understanding the Role of Citicoline in Cognitive Enhancement

citicolineIn the world of nootropics, Citicoline stands out as a powerful supplement known for its cognitive-enhancing properties. As a staple in the arsenal of brain health supplements, Citicoline has gained popularity for its ability to improve memory, focus, and overall brain function. This article will explore the benefits of Citicoline, how it impacts cognitive functions, and why it might be the right choice for you.

What is Citicoline?

Citicoline, also known as CDP-choline (Cytidine Diphosphate Choline), is a naturally occurring compound found in the cells of the human body. It plays a critical role in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a key component of cell membranes, and acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter essential for learning and memory.

How Does Citicoline Work?

Citicoline works by providing the brain with choline, which is a precursor to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is crucial for various cognitive functions, including attention, memory formation, and learning. By boosting the levels of acetylcholine, Citicoline helps enhance these cognitive processes. Additionally, Citicoline aids in repairing and maintaining cell membranes, which supports overall brain health and function.

Benefits of Citicoline for Cognitive Enhancement

  1. Improves Memory: Citicoline has been shown to enhance memory performance, particularly in individuals experiencing age-related memory decline. By increasing acetylcholine levels, it facilitates better memory formation and recall.
  2. Enhances Focus and Attention: Citicoline improves concentration and sustained attention, making it an ideal supplement for students and professionals who require long periods of focus.
  3. Supports Brain Health: The compound promotes the repair and maintenance of cell membranes, ensuring that neurons function optimally. This is crucial for overall brain health and longevity.
  4. Boosts Mental Energy: Citicoline can help increase mental energy and reduce cognitive fatigue, which is beneficial for maintaining productivity and alertness throughout the day.
  5. Neuroprotective Effects: Research suggests that Citicoline has neuroprotective properties, helping to protect the brain from damage caused by free radicals and other harmful agents.

Why Choose Citicoline Over Other Nootropics?

  • Safety and Efficacy: Citicoline is well-researched and has a strong safety profile. It is effective for a wide range of cognitive issues, making it a reliable choice for cognitive enhancement.
  • Versatility: Unlike some nootropics that target specific cognitive functions, Citicoline offers broad-spectrum benefits, supporting memory, focus, and overall brain health.
  • Compatibility: Citicoline can be used in combination with other nootropics to enhance their effects, providing a synergistic boost to cognitive performance.

How to Use Citicoline Safely

For optimal results, it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen. Typical doses range from 250 to 500 mg per day, but individual needs may vary.


Citicoline is a powerful nootropic with a wide range of cognitive benefits. Whether you are looking to improve memory, enhance focus, or support overall brain health, Citicoline offers a safe and effective solution. By understanding its role in cognitive enhancement and incorporating it into your daily routine, you can unlock your brain's full potential and achieve better mental performance.

The Cognitive Benefits of Sildenafil (Viagra): Enhancing Brain Function and Delaying Neural Aging

In recent years, the search for effective nootropics—substances that enhance cognitive function—has expanded beyond traditional supplements. One such promising candidate is Sildenafil, commonly known for its use in treating erectile dysfunction. Emerging research suggests that Sildenafil may also offer significant benefits for cognitive function and delaying the aging of the nervous system. This article will explore these potential benefits and provide useful insights for those considering Sildenafil for cognitive enhancement.

What is Sildenafil?

Sildenafil, originally developed by Pfizer and marketed as Viagra, is widely recognized for its ability to treat erectile dysfunction by increasing blood flow. However, its mechanisms of action—specifically, its ability to enhance blood circulation—have led researchers to investigate its potential effects on brain health.

How Sildenafil Works

Sildenafil works by inhibiting an enzyme called phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). This inhibition leads to the relaxation of blood vessels and increased blood flow. In the context of cognitive function, improved blood flow can mean better oxygen and nutrient delivery to the brain, which is crucial for maintaining and enhancing neural activity.

Cognitive Benefits of Sildenafil

Enhanced Blood Flow to the Brain

One of the primary ways Sildenafil may enhance cognitive function is through improved cerebral blood flow. Adequate blood flow is essential for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain, which supports optimal cognitive performance. Enhanced blood flow can help improve memory, focus, and overall mental clarity.

Neuroprotective Effects

Sildenafil's ability to increase blood flow also contributes to its neuroprotective effects. By ensuring that the brain receives sufficient oxygen and nutrients, Sildenafil helps protect neural cells from damage and supports their health. This can be particularly beneficial in delaying the onset of age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases.

Potential for Enhancing Learning and Memory

Preliminary studies suggest that Sildenafil may have a positive impact on learning and memory. Enhanced blood flow and oxygenation can support the growth of new neural connections and improve synaptic plasticity, which are critical for learning and memory formation.

Delaying Neural Aging with Sildenafil

Combating Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress is a significant factor in neural aging and cognitive decline. It occurs when there is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the body. Sildenafil's ability to improve blood flow can enhance the delivery of antioxidants to the brain, helping to combat oxidative stress and protect neural cells from damage.

Reducing Inflammation

Chronic inflammation is another contributor to neural aging and cognitive decline. By improving blood flow and supporting overall brain health, Sildenafil can help reduce inflammation in the brain, promoting a healthier neural environment and potentially delaying the aging process.

Supporting Mitochondrial Function

Mitochondria are the energy powerhouses of cells, and their function is crucial for maintaining healthy neural activity. Sildenafil's enhancement of blood flow can support mitochondrial function by ensuring that these organelles receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients to produce energy efficiently. Improved mitochondrial function can help maintain cognitive performance and delay neural aging.

How to Use Sildenafil for Cognitive Enhancement

Dosage and Administration

If you are considering Sildenafil for cognitive enhancement, it is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate dosage and administration. The typical dose for erectile dysfunction may not be suitable for cognitive purposes, and a healthcare provider can help tailor the dosage to your specific needs.

Potential Side Effects

While Sildenafil is generally well-tolerated, it can cause side effects such as headaches, flushing, and dizziness. It is essential to discuss any potential side effects with your healthcare provider and monitor your body's response to the supplement.

Combining Sildenafil with Other Nootropics

For those looking to maximize cognitive benefits, combining Sildenafil with other nootropics may offer synergistic effects. However, it is essential to do so under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.


Sildenafil holds promise as a cognitive enhancer and a potential agent for delaying neural aging. By improving blood flow, combating oxidative stress, reducing inflammation, and supporting mitochondrial function, Sildenafil can contribute to better cognitive performance and brain health. If you are in the European Union and interested in exploring the cognitive benefits of Sildenafil, our online store offers high-quality supplements tailored to your needs. Visit our website to learn more and make a purchase today!

Natural vs. Synthetic Nootropics: Which is Right for You?

In the quest for enhanced cognitive function and mental performance, nootropics have become a popular solution. These cognitive enhancers come in two main types: natural and synthetic. Deciding which type is right for you can be challenging, as both have their unique benefits and potential drawbacks. This article explores the differences between natural and synthetic nootropics to help you make an informed choice.

Understanding Nootropics

Nootropics, also known as smart drugs, are substances that can improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals. They work by various mechanisms, including increasing blood flow to the brain, enhancing neurotransmitter activity, and promoting the growth of brain cells.

Natural Nootropics

Natural nootropics are derived from plants, herbs, and other natural sources. They have been used for centuries in traditional medicine practices around the world. Here are some of the most popular natural nootropics:

  1. Ginkgo Biloba: Ginkgo biloba is an ancient tree extract known for its ability to improve memory and cognitive function by enhancing blood flow to the brain.
  2. Bacopa Monnieri: Bacopa monnieri is an herb used in Ayurvedic medicine that supports memory, learning, and mental clarity. It is believed to work by promoting neuron communication.
  3. Rhodiola Rosea: Rhodiola rosea is an adaptogenic herb that helps the body cope with stress. It enhances cognitive function and reduces fatigue.
  4. Panax Ginseng: Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal remedy that boosts energy, improves cognitive function, and reduces mental fatigue.
  5. Lion's Mane Mushroom: Lion's mane mushroom is a natural nootropic that stimulates nerve growth factor (NGF) production, promoting brain cell growth and improving cognitive function.

Synthetic Nootropics

Synthetic nootropics are man-made compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. They are often more potent than natural nootropics and can provide more immediate results. Here are some common synthetic nootropics:

  1. Modafinil: Modafinil is a prescription drug used to treat narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. It enhances wakefulness, alertness, and cognitive function.
  2. Piracetam: Piracetam is one of the earliest nootropics developed and is known for its ability to improve memory and learning. It works by enhancing neurotransmitter function and increasing blood flow to the brain.
  3. Noopept: Noopept is a potent synthetic nootropic that improves memory, learning, and cognitive function. It also has neuroprotective properties.
  4. Adderall: Adderall is a prescription medication used to treat ADHD. It contains amphetamine salts that increase dopamine and norepinephrine levels, improving focus and attention.
  5. Phenylpiracetam: Phenylpiracetam is a modified version of piracetam that is more potent. It enhances cognitive function, increases physical stamina, and reduces anxiety.

Natural vs. Synthetic Nootropics: Pros and Cons

Natural Nootropics


  • Fewer side effects: Natural nootropics are generally considered safer with fewer side effects compared to synthetic ones.
  • Long-term use: Many natural nootropics can be taken long-term without the risk of dependency or severe side effects.
  • Holistic benefits: Natural nootropics often provide additional health benefits, such as reducing inflammation and supporting overall well-being.


  • Milder effects: Natural nootropics may not be as potent or fast-acting as synthetic ones, making them less effective for some individuals.
  • Variation in potency: The potency of natural nootropics can vary depending on the source and preparation.

Synthetic Nootropics


  • Potent effects: Synthetic nootropics are often more potent and can provide immediate and noticeable cognitive enhancements.
  • Precise dosages: Synthetic nootropics are manufactured to provide precise dosages, ensuring consistent effects.


  • Side effects: Synthetic nootropics can have more side effects and potential risks, especially with long-term use.
  • Dependency: Some synthetic nootropics can lead to dependency or tolerance, requiring higher doses over time to achieve the same effects.
  • Prescription requirements: Many synthetic nootropics require a prescription, making them less accessible.

Choosing the Right Nootropic for You

When deciding between natural and synthetic nootropics, consider the following factors:

  1. Your Goals: Determine what you want to achieve with nootropics. If you are looking for mild cognitive enhancement and overall well-being, natural nootropics may be sufficient. For more significant cognitive boosts, synthetic nootropics might be necessary.
  2. Safety and Side Effects: Evaluate your tolerance for potential side effects. If you prefer a safer, side-effect-free option, natural nootropics are a better choice. If you are willing to accept some risk for greater cognitive enhancement, synthetic nootropics could be suitable.
  3. Accessibility: Consider the availability of the nootropic. Natural nootropics are generally more accessible and do not require a prescription, while synthetic ones might.
  4. Duration of Use: Think about how long you plan to use nootropics. Natural nootropics are better for long-term use, while synthetic nootropics might be more appropriate for short-term, targeted cognitive boosts.


Both natural and synthetic nootropics have their unique advantages and potential drawbacks. Natural nootropics offer a safer, holistic approach with additional health benefits, while synthetic nootropics provide potent, immediate cognitive enhancements. Your choice will depend on your individual goals, tolerance for side effects, accessibility, and intended duration of use. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any nootropic regimen to ensure it is safe and appropriate for your specific needs.

The Science Behind Modafinil: How It Works and Its Benefits

In recent years, Modafinil has garnered significant attention as a potent nootropic and wakefulness-promoting agent. Initially developed to treat narcolepsy, it is now widely used off-label for enhancing cognitive function, boosting productivity, and managing conditions such as ADHD and chronic fatigue syndrome. This article delves into the science behind Modafinil, exploring how it works and its myriad benefits.

Understanding Modafinil: The Mechanism of Action

Modafinil's precise mechanism of action is not entirely understood, but it is believed to influence several neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Here are the key pathways through which Modafil exerts its effects:

  1. Dopamine Reuptake Inhibition: Modafinil blocks the reuptake of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure, motivation, and attention. By preventing dopamine from being reabsorbed into neurons, Modafinil increases its availability in the brain, leading to enhanced mood and cognitive function.
  2. Histamine Activation: Modafinil activates histamine neurons in the hypothalamus. Histamine is crucial for regulating the sleep-wake cycle. By stimulating histamine release, Modafinil promotes wakefulness and reduces the propensity for sleep.
  3. Orexin (Hypocretin) Stimulation: Orexin neurons, also located in the hypothalamus, play a significant role in maintaining wakefulness. Modafinil increases the activity of orexin neurons, further supporting its wakefulness-promoting effects.
  4. Glutamate Release: Modafinil enhances the release of glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. This action improves synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory.
  5. GABA Inhibition: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Modafinil reduces GABA release, leading to increased neuronal activity and heightened alertness.

The Benefits of Modafinil

Modafinil's unique action on multiple neurotransmitter systems translates into a wide range of benefits, making it a popular choice among various user groups.

  1. Enhanced Cognitive Function: Modafinil is renowned for its ability to improve various aspects of cognitive function, including memory, attention, and executive function. Users often report heightened focus and an increased ability to process information efficiently.
  2. Increased Wakefulness: As a wakefulness-promoting agent, Modafinil is highly effective in combating excessive daytime sleepiness. It is commonly used by individuals with sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and sleep apnea.
  3. Improved Mood: By modulating dopamine levels, Modafinil can have a positive impact on mood. Users frequently experience reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety, leading to an overall sense of well-being.
  4. Enhanced Productivity: The cognitive and mood-enhancing effects of Modafinil contribute to increased productivity. Professionals, students, and individuals in high-demand environments often use Modafinil to stay alert, focused, and efficient.
  5. Reduced Fatigue: Modafinil is effective in alleviating fatigue associated with various medical conditions, including chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Its ability to sustain wakefulness and mental energy helps users combat persistent tiredness.

Potential Side Effects and Considerations

While Modafinil offers numerous benefits, it is essential to be aware of potential side effects and use the medication responsibly. Common side effects include headache, nausea, nervousness, and insomnia. It is crucial to follow the prescribed dosage and consult a healthcare professional before starting Modafinil, especially for individuals with underlying health conditions or those taking other medications.


Modafinil stands out as a versatile and powerful agent for enhancing wakefulness and cognitive function. Its multi-faceted mechanism of action and wide range of benefits make it a valuable tool for individuals seeking to improve their mental performance and manage sleep-related disorders. As with any medication, responsible use and medical guidance are key to maximizing its benefits while minimizing potential risks.

Neuroprotective Properties of CDP-choline

Neuroprotective Properties of Citicoline

Citicoline is the name of the pharmaceutical product that chemically is cytidine-50-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline), which is identical to the natural precursor of phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. After administration, CDP-choline undergos quick hydrolysis and dephosphorylation to produce cytidine and choline, which then enter the brain separately and then are used to restore CDP-choline inside neurons. This, in turn, is believed to result in inhibition of phospholipid breakdown and acceleration of phospholipid resynthesis cruitial for membrane repair. Neuroprotective properties of CDP-choline has been reported in many preclinical models of brain ischaemia and trauma. The compound has offered marked neuroprotection in many in vitro and in vivo models of brain ischaemic and neurodegenerative diseases, including brain hypoxia, ischaemia and intracerebral haemorrhage, brain and spinal cord trauma, in vitro glutamate excitotoxicity and also in vivo amyloid toxicity. However, the mechanisms of this neuroprotection are still unknown. One major effect of citicoline is believed to be stimulation of the synthesis and increase in the level of phospholipids. The other mechanisms suggested to be involved in the neuroprotective effects of CDP-choline include inhibition of activation of phospholipase A2. The related effects comprise attenuation of the increase in hydroxyl radical synthesis, preventing loss of cardiolipin (an exclusive inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid essential for electron transport, which is degraded in response to cellular insults and disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain). In aged rats, an increase in the brain level of platelet-activating factor (a bioactive phospholipid implicated in neuronal excitotoxic death) has also been noted. In rats, attenuation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and caspase activation have been observed after CDP-choline administration. Last, but not least, according to the most recent report, treatment with CDP-choline has been found to stimulate sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) protein levels in neurons, in circulating blood mononuclear cells and in the neurons. This effect seems to be of critical importance for neuroprotection in experimental stroke because sirtinol, a specific inhibitor of SIRT1 which, by itself, does not influence infarct volume, has been shown to abolish the neuroprotection offered by citicoline. Citicoline showed a potent synergistic effect with resveratrol (which is known to be a SIRT1 activator).

Neuroprotective Properties of Citicoline

cognitive enhancers

Cognitive enhancers competition

Pharmacological cognitive enhancement among non-ADHD individuals—A cross-sectional study in 15 countries

Psychoactive substance use aiming at increased performance at work or while studying, usually referred to as pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE), has been extensively researched in recent years. Tabele shows the perceived effect of the use of single substance (categories) on cognitive performance. When alcohol or benzodiazepines were used to directly or indirectly enhance cognitive performance at work or while studying, only few perceived an actual increase while half and a third, respectively, reported decreased performance following the use. According to the provided self-reports, modafinil had the best effect profile:

Cognitive enhancers

Perceived effect of substance use for cognitive enhancement among  participants . The substances in the graph are ordered from left to right based on the highest to lowest  perceived increase of cognitive performance following the substance use originally aimed at enhancement.
References: Pharmacological cognitive enhancement among non-ADHD individuals—Across-sectional study in 15 countries



Investigations into a new class of pharmacologically active drugs for improvement of physical and mental efficiency in people, called actoprotectors, were carried out under Professor Vladimir Vinogradov at the Military Medical Acad­emy (then Leningrad, USSR; now, St. Petersburg, Russia)’s Department of Pharmacology in the 1970s. This work resulted in the development of the first and most com­monly used actoprotector, bemitil (chemical structure: 2-eth­ylbenzimidazole hydrobromide; English-language literature: “bemithil”, “bemithyl” or “bemethyl”; also known as “bemactor” and “metaprot” in later publications). This achieve­ment earned Professor Vinogradov and his research group the State Prize of the USSR. Other actoprotectors subsequently were formulated as well, the most important of which, from the practical point of view is bromantane.
The first recipients of bemitil were Soviet cosmonaughts. Bemitil also was successfully employed in preparing the athletes of the USSR’s national team for the 1980 Olympic Games held in Moscow. Later, throughout the 1990s, it was used as a basic medicinal agent in almost all of the corps of the Soviet and then Russian armies. Notably, its administra­tion made it possible to increase soldiers’ endurance over long marches; in the Air Forces, Missile Troops, and Army Air Defense, it enhanced work capacity and stability to hypoxia; and in the Navy, it reinforced stability to hypoxia and, where applicable, high temperatures. The latter property, in fact, had  determined its wide use by the “limited contingent” of Soviet troops in Afghanistan. Bemitil enabled soldiers, including Spe­cial Forces, to effectively perform combat missions under both hypoxic and high-temperature conditions. Bemitil’s effective­ness for various types of activities was shown also in its en­hancement of the physical and mental capacities of rescue and other workers deployed in the wakes of the Chernobyl catastrophe (1986), the earthquakes in Armenia (1988), and the railway accidents in Bashkiria (1989) (Shabanov, 2009a). Bromantane also was employed in the Soviet and Russian armies, to shorten recovery times after strong physical exer­tion, though not as widely as bemitil.
After the disintegration of the USSR in 1991, the official manufacture and clinical use of bemitil was discontinued. However, owing to its wide-ranging pharmacological activity, high efficiency, and safety, its initial sports and military medi­cine applications have been extended widely to other branch­es of practical medicine. As for bromantane, its production continued after 1991, though its applications were limited, pri­marily, to sports medicine. Nowadays, bemitil is manufactured in Ukraine (commercial name: Antihot) and is widely used in preparing Ukrainian national sport teams for international competitions. Bromantane is manufactured in Russia (com­mercial name: Ladasten); since 1997, anti-doping regulations have prohibited its use in sports, though it has recently been utilized in the treatment of patients with asthenic and restless-asthenic frustration.


pharmacological properties of piracetam-like compounds

Pharmacological properties of piracetam-like compounds

CompoundIUPAC namePotencyDosageBioavailability (%)Half-life
Piracetam2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamideLow50 to >300mg/kg/d (up to 37 g/d)~1004–5h
Oxiracetam2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamideMedium25–40mg/kg/d (up to 2.4 g/d)~753–6 h
PramiracetamN-[2-(dipropan-2-ylamino)ethyl]-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamideMedium10–20mg/kg/d (1.2 g/d)~1002–8 h
Aniracetam1-[(4-methoxybenzoyl)]-2-pyrrolidinoneMedium12–25mg/kg/d (1.5g/d)~111–2.5 h
Phenylpiracetam2-(4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamideHigh 2.5–5mg/kg/d (up to 0.75 g/d)~1003–5 h
Levetiracetam(2S)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamideMedium20–60mg/kg/d (up to 3 g/d)~1006–8h
Brivaracetam(2S)-2-[(4R)-2-oxo-4-propylpyrrolidin-1-yl]butanamideMedium10–25mg/kg/d (up to 1.4 g/d)~907–8 h
Seletracetam(2S)-2-[(4R)-4-(2,2-difluoroethenyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl]butanamideHigh0.03–10mg/kg/d (up to 0. 6 g/d)>908 h
NefiracetamN-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamideMedium10–15mg/kg/d (up to 0.9 g/d)NA3–5 h
Fasoracetam(5R)-5-(piperidine-1-carbonyl) pyrrolidin-2-oneHigh100mg/d79–974–6.5 h
Rolziracetam2,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolizine-3,5-dioneNANA~90<25 min

Properties of tianeptine

The neurobiological properties of tianeptine (Stablon)

Tianeptine is a  antidepressant that has drawn much attention, because this compound challenges traditional monoaminergic hypotheses of depression. It’s now acknowledged that the antidepressant actions of tianeptine, together with its remarkable clinical tolerance, can be attributed to its particular neurobiological properties. The involvement of glutamate in the mechanism of action of the antidepressant tianeptine is consistent with a well-developed preclinical literature demonstrating the key function of glutamate in the mechanism of altered neuroplasticity that underlies the symptoms of depression.
Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder, and the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are not that clear and are the subject of intensive investigation using pharmacological and genetic tools and animal models. The ‘monoamine hypothesis’ of depression, which involves imbalances in serotonergic, noradrenergic and possibly dopaminergic functions, has dominated notions and explanations of the pathophysiology of depression since the empirical discovery of the antidepressant properties of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclics about 50 years ago. Although the monoaminergic neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and dopamine (DA) are undoubtedly involved, it is now recognized that monoamine deficits are only part of the story and are not sufficient on their own to explain the mechanism of action of antidepressants. In extension to the chemical hypothesis of depression, contemporary theories suggest that major depressive disorders may be associated not only with an imbalance of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators but also with an impairment of neuroplasticity and cellular resilience, and that antidepressant medications act by normalizing this impairment. The term neuroplasticity describes the ability of the adult and differentiated brain to adapt functionally and structurally to internal and external stimuli and is considered today as a feature of depressive illness. Brain regions that exhibit neuroplastic processes include the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex, as they are reported to undergo structural changes in depression, and alterations in these brain regions affect emotions, perceptions, memory and cognitive function. The concept of a serotonergic deficit in depression is particularly challenged by the drug tianeptine, an antidepressant with structural similarities to the tricyclic antidepressant agents but with different pharmacological properties. The efficacy and tolerability of tianeptine are clearly demonstrated in depressed patients. However, the monoamine hypothesis cannot explain these properties. In fact, tianeptine has contributed greatly to our realization of the complexity of the etiology of depression, and to the complexity of central mechanisms triggered by antidepressants. Its mechanisms of action clearly challenge the hypothesis of an immediate modulation of monoamine axes to support the antidepressant actions. Rather, tianeptine triggers a cascade of cellular adaptations that ultimately will lead to the antidepressant efficacy. Among those sustained adaptations, increased phosphorylation of glutamate receptors subtypes in circumscribed brain region appears particularly interesting. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain controlling synaptic excitability and plasticity in most brain circuits, including limbic pathways. Glutamatergic mechanisms are crucial in virtually all key functions perturbed in depressed states. In addition, glutamate is an essential participant in many forms of adaptive plasticity, including: learning and memory. The actions of tianeptine on the glutamatergic system offer new insights into how this compound may be useful in the treatment of depression.
The neurobiological properties of tianeptine (Stablon): from monoamine hypothesis to glutamatergic modulation
Molecular Psychiatry (2010) 15, 237–249

Buy Amanita Mucsaria

New method for identification and determination of ibotenic acid, muscimol and muscarine

New method for identification and determination of ibotenic acid, muscimol.


The CE–ESI-MS/MS (capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospraytandem mass spectrometry) method for the identification, separation and determination of mushroom toxins, namely ibotenic acid, muscimol and muscarine, was developed. It proved to be sensitive and thus useful for the real sample analysis with omitting the labor and time consuming pretreatment step. The CE–ESI-MS/MS method was applied on the spiked human urine. The analytical characteristics of the proposed method, such as limits of detection, linearity and repeatability of the peak area and the migration time, were evaluated. Developed method is sufficient for the determination and quantification of studied toxins in human urine after mushroom intoxication.
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